Doctor Who is a British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC. The programme depicts the adventures of a mysterious alien time-traveller known as 'the Doctor' who travels in his space and time-ship, the TARDIS, which normally appears from the exterior to be a blue 1950s police box. With his companions, he explores time and space, solving problems, facing monsters and righting wrongs.
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The Logo of The First Doctor

Used from 1963 to 1966, Season 1 to Season 4

This logo was a simple white text on a black background, it was used to great effect to create the title sequence. It is associated with William Hartnell's tenure as the First Doctor. It remained in use for Patrick Troughton's first few stories up through The Moonbase. It saw some use on merchandising such as Doctor Who Annual and the Frederick Muller novelisations. Much later, in the 1980s, Marvel Comics combined Logo One with elements of Logo Four for its Doctor Who comic book.
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The Logo of The Second Doctor

Used from 19661969, Season 4 - Season 6

This logo made its first appearance with The Macra Terror. The font was altered to Times New Roman, a completely new "howlaround" pattern was created and Patrick Troughton's face was added for the first time. Initially it used the same music as the previous logo, but starting from Episode 2 of The Faceless Ones, a new arrangment of the theme replaced the old one. It does not appear to have been widely used on merchandising, though it did appear on the record release Doctor Who: Variations on a Theme years later. A variation utilizing thicker, sans serif lettering was used by Target Books on its earliest novelisations before moving into a variant of Logo Four.
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The Logo of The Third Doctor

Used from 19701974, Season 7 - Season 10

Primarily associated with Jon Pertwee's time as the Third Doctor, this logo was reused in 1996 for Doctor Who: The TV Movie - see Logo Eight, below. While the title sequence was shown in colour in order to achieve the affect similar to previous sequence it was originally designed in black and white. As noted below, this logo is currently (2009) the standard logo for merchandise related to the 1963-89 TV series and the TV movie, most notably the Big Finish Productions audio stories and the BBC Video "classic series" DVD releases.
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The Logo of The Fourth Doctor

Used from 19741980, Season 11 - Season 17

Known informally as the "diamond logo" and commonly associated with Tom Baker's time as the Fourth Doctor, this logo was actually introduced during Jon Pertwee's time as the Third Doctor for his final season. Although known as the diamond logo, in fact the diamond-shaped background was often omitted when the logo was used on books and other merchandise. The logo returned to service in the 1980s and 1990s when it was used for video releases of the series (in lieu of logos Five and Six), as well as for the Virgin Missing Adventures book line. It also ultimately replaced Logo Seven on most tie-in publications and merchanding, though not the Virgin New Adventures book series, in the two-three years immediately preceding the introduction of Logo Eight.
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The Logo of The Fifth and Sixth Doctor

Used from 19801986, Season 18 - Season 23

Introduced in the final season of Tom Baker's era (Season 18), this revamp of the logo complimented the new title sequence of a 'star field', it was then used throughout Peter Davison's time as the Fifth Doctor. This logo is known colloquially as the "neon sign" or "neon tube" logo. After a brief lag after its introduction the logo began to be used on merchandise such as the Target Books novelisations and Doctor Who Magazine. For the Sixth Doctor, the was similar to the previous logo, but tinted purple along with the rest of the title sequence giving it a more colourful hue. It also takes on a slightly curved appearance along the bottom. This variant was only used for the TV series broadcasts; all merchandise including books relating to Colin Baker's era and DWM continued to use the original version of Logo Five.
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The Logo of The Seventh Doctor

Used from 19871988, Season 24 - Season 26

For Sylvester McCoy's Seventh Doctor a new title sequence was produced using computer generated imagery, with the new logo being a three dimensionally animated part of the title sequence. The logo was subsequently adopted by DWM and the Target Books line, as well as for merchandise. Following the TV series' end in 1989 this logo would continue to be used for the Virgin New Adventures novels and other merchandise including Doctor Who Magazine until the early 90s when it was replaced on most products (except the New Adventures books) by the more famous Logo Four. Its final on-screen use was for the 1993 mini-episode Dimensions in Time.
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The Logo of The Nineth and Tenth Doctor

Used from 20052009, Season 1 - Season 4 and 2009 Specials

The return of Doctor Who to television saw a radical redesign of the logo. For the first time the two words of the title are presented horizontally rather than vertically, and as reported by BBC News the new design was initially controversial with some fans.
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The Logo of The Eleventh Doctor

Used beginning in January 2010, Season 5

The BBC unveiled a new logo on 6th October 2009, to be associated with Series 5 in 2010.

The logo returns to the two-level wording of previous Doctor Who logos, and also for the first time incorporates a third and fourth separate element - the initials DW forming the shape of the TARDIS, and also the BBC logo. (It remains to be seen, however, if the BBC part of the logo is retained for international use of the logo, or use in spin-off media such as the IDW Publishing comics.)

The BBC have also released an alternate, horizontal version of the logo with the DW/TARDIS element separating the words "Doctor" and "Who". According to SFX magazine, the BBC officially refers to the Doctor Who lettering as the logo, with the DW/TARDIS graphic being referred to as the "icon".

It is not yet known which version of the branding will actually be used in the opening credits of Series 5. The horizontal version is currently (January 2010) being used on the official BBC Doctor Who website.